International Journal of Experimental Dental Science

Register      Login

VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 1 ( January-June, 2013 ) > List of Articles


Association of Oral Health and Systemic Diseases in the Elderly

Atul Sachdev, Manjit Talwar, Gaurav Malik, Suresh Sharma

Citation Information : Sachdev A, Talwar M, Malik G, Sharma S. Association of Oral Health and Systemic Diseases in the Elderly. Int J Experiment Dent Sci 2013; 2 (1):9-13.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1031

Published Online: 01-06-2015

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2013; The Author(s).



Oral health may have an impact on general health with clinical implications.


To assess association of oral health with systemic diseases in the elderly.

Materials and methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted in 232 elderly subjects (above 50 years) who visited the geriatric medicine OPD at Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. Oral examination was conducted using the WHO Oral Assessment Form (1997). Written informed consent was taken. Patients were grouped according to their systemic health into six groups: Healthy elderly (group 1), hypertension and coronary artery disease (group 2), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (group 3), diabetes (group 4), diabetes and hypertension (group 5) and hypertension (group 6).


Average DMFT for coronal caries in the six groups was 23.8, 21.24, 22.15, 22.58, 17.83, 22.22 respectively and root caries 22.04, 18.05, 19.46, 14.90, 14.75, 18.62. Periodontal status was assessed by recording the CPI score and attachment loss. Chi-square test was applied, a significantly (p < 0.05) higher CPI score was recorded for groups 2, 3, 6 compared to group 1 while attachment loss was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in diabetics (group 4) compared to group 1. Applying the Z-test for proportions a significantly (p < 0.05) higher number of group 1 edentulous subjects were using upper/lower complete dentures as compared to groups 4 and 5.


Findings of this study indicate an inverse relationship of periodontal health with systemic diseases in the selected sample but further research is needed with larger sample to authenticate the results.

How to cite this article

Talwar M, Malik G, Sharma S, Sachdev A, Chaudhry K. Association of Oral Health and Systemic Diseases in the Elderly. Int J Experiment Dent Sci 2013;2(1): 9-13.

PDF Share
  1. Office of the Registrar General, Government of India, New Delhi 2010:93-102.
  2. Report of the technical group on population projections constituted by the National Commission on Population May 2006. Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India.
  3. Impact of sociodemographic variables, oral hygiene practices, oral habits and diet on dental caries experience of Indian elderly: A community based study. Gerodontology 2004;21:43-50.
  4. The history of dentistry and medicine relationship: Could the mouth finally return to the body? Oral Dis 2009;15:538-46.
  5. Effects of oral flora on platelets: Possible consequences in cardiovascular disease. J Periodontol 1996;67 (Suppl 10):1138-42.
  6. The pathobiology of periodontal disease may affect systemic diseases: Inversion of a paradigm. Ann Periodontol 1998;3(1):108-20.
  7. Etiopathogenesis of cardiovascular disease: Hemostasis, thrombosis and vascular medicine. Ann Periodontol 1998;3(1):121-26.
  8. Periodontal disease and risk for myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease. Cardiovasc Rev Rep 1998;19(3): 34-40.
  9. Prevention of bacterial endocarditis: Recommendations by the American Heart Association. JADA 1997;128:1142-51.
  10. The dangers of gum disease–Periodontitis and systemic disease. Dentistry (Indian Edition) 2011 Nov-Dec;3(6):5.
  11. The association between oral health and general health. Merging of association between oral, cardiovascular and cardiovascular health (2002) and dentistry and general health (1998). Revised version adopted by the General Assembly. 4th Sept 2009, Singapore.
  12. Periodontal disease as a complication of diabetes mellitus. Ann Periodontol 1998;3(1):20-29.
  13. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus: A two-way relationship. Ann Periodontol 1998;3(1):51-61.
  14. Oral health surveys basic methods (4th ed.) Geneva: World Health Organization, 1997.
  15. Pattern of caries experience among an elderly population in South India. Int Dent J 1994;44:617-22.
  16. Systematic review of the association between respiratory disease and oral health. J Periodontal 2006;77(9):1465-82.
  17. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease. J Am Dent Assoc 1990;121:532-36.
  18. Response to periodontal therapy in diabetics and smokers. J Periodontol 1996;67(10 Suppl):1094-102.
  19. The influence of denture wearing and age on the oral microflora. J Dent Res 1992;71:1374-81.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.