International Journal of Experimental Dental Science

Register      Login

VOLUME 5 , ISSUE 1 ( January-June, 2016 ) > List of Articles


Prevalence of Gingival Recession and associated Risk Factors among 18–45-Year-Old Who Attended a Dental Practice in Greece

Nikolaos Andreas Chrysanthakopoulos

Citation Information : Chrysanthakopoulos NA. Prevalence of Gingival Recession and associated Risk Factors among 18–45-Year-Old Who Attended a Dental Practice in Greece. Int J Experiment Dent Sci 2016; 5 (1):28-33.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1119

Published Online: 01-08-2010

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2016; The Author(s).



To assess the prevalence of gingival recession and to investigate possible associations among gingival recession and periodontal and epidemiological variables in a sample of Greek adults in a general dental practice.

Materials and methods

A sample of 640 Greek adults was examined clinically and interviewed regarding several periodontal and epidemiological variables. Collected data included demographic background (age, gender, level of education), oral hygiene habits, and smoking status. Clinical examination included the recording of dental plaque and supragingival calculus presence, gingival status, and gingival recession. In addition, the association between gingival recession and the following variables was assessed: gender, smoking status, calculus presence, plaque control methods, plaque index, gingival index, and level of education. Multiple linear regression analysis was carried out to model the association of gingival recession with the mentioned potential risk factors.


The overall prevalence of gingival recession was 62.7%. The performance of multiple linear regression analysis indicated that smoking (p = 0.001), plaque index (p = 0.021), gingival index (p < 0.0001), plaque control methods (p < 0.001), and level of education (p < 0.001) were the most important associated factors of gingival recession.


The present study indicates that an association exists between gingival recession and presence of gingival inflammation, inadequate oral hygiene habits, and smoking.

How to cite this article

Chrysanthakopoulos NA, Saini R. Prevalence of Gingival Recession and associated Risk Factors among 18–45-Year-Old Who Attended a Dental Practice in Greece. Int J Experiment Dent Sci 2016;5(1):28-33.

PDF Share
  1. The aetiology and prevalence of gingival recession. J Am Dent Assoc 2003 Feb;134(2):220-225.
  2. Gingival recession-its significance and management. J Dent 2001 Aug;29(6):381-393.
  3. Gingival recession: epidemiology and risk indicators in a representative urban Brazilian population. J Periodontol 2004 Oct;75(10):1377-1386.
  4. Gingival recession: epidemiology and risk indicators in a university dental hospital in Turkey. Int J Dent Hyg 2009 May;7(2):115-120.
  5. Prevalence and associated factors of gingival recession in Greek adults. J Investig Clin Dent 2013 Aug;4(3):178-185.
  6. Occurrence, extension and severity of the gingival recession in a Greek adult population sample. J Periodontol Impl Dent 2010;2(1):37-42.
  7. Gingival recession at the University College Hospital, Ibadan-prevalence and effect of some etiological factors. Afr J Med Sci 2000 Sep-Dec;29(3-4):259-263.
  8. Coverage of gingival recession using tunnel connective tissue graft technique. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2009 May-Aug;13(2):101-105.
  9. Association between periodontal condition and use of tongue piercing: a case-control study. J Clin Periodontol 2010 Aug 1;37(8):712-718.
  10. Gingival recession: prevalence and risk indicators among young Greek adults. J Clin Exp Dent 2014;6(3):e243-249.
  11. The natural history of periodontal disease in man: prevalence, severity and extent of gingival recession. J Periodontol 1992 Jun;63(6):489-495.
  12. Gingival recession in young adults: occurrence, severity and relationship to past orthodontic treatment and oral piercing. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2008 Nov;134(5):652-656.
  13. Effect of smoking on gingival recession. Dent Res J 2008 Spring-Summer;5(1):1-4.
  14. Gingival recession: prevalence, extension and severity in adults. J Appl Oral Sci 2004 Jul-Sep;12(3):250-255.
  15. The gingival index, the plaque index and the retention index systems. J Periodontol 1967 Nov-Dec;38(6):610-616.
  16. Gingival recession and associated factors in a homogeneous Mexican adult male population: A cross-sectional study. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2012 Sep1;17(5):e807-e813.
  17. Gingival recession associated with predisposing factors in young Vietnamese: a pilot study. Oral Health Dent Manag 2012 Sep;11(3):134-144.
  18. The extent and correlates of gingival recession in noninstitutionalized Thai elderly. J Int Acad Periodontol 2002; 4(4):143-148.
  19. Risk assessment for buccal gingival recession defects in an adult population. J Periodontol 2010 Oct;81(10):1419-1425.
  20. Prevalence and associated factors of gingival recession in Japanese adults. IADR/AADR/CADR 82nd General Session Hawaii Convention Center Exhibit; March 2004.p. 10-13.
  21. The oral cavity hygiene as the basic element of the gingival recession prophylaxis. Rocz Akad Med Bialymst 2005;50(Suppl 1):234-237.
  22. Gingival recession, oral hygiene and associated factors among Tanzanian women. East Afr Med J 2009 Mar;86(3):125-132.
  23. Tooth brushing and gingival recession. Int Dent J 2003 Apr;53(2):67-72.
  24. A survey of the correspondence between abrasions and tooth brushing habits in Erzurum, Turkey. Int Dent J 2003 Dec;53(6):491-495.
  25. Gingival recession: epidemiologic, etiologic and therapeutic aspects. Int J Dent Sci 2009 Jul;7(1):9.
  26. The evolution of buccal gingival recessions in a student population: a 5-year followup. J Periodontol 2007 Apr;78(4):611-614.
  27. The impact of powered and manual tooth brushing on incipient gingival recession. J Clin Periodontol 2009 Nov;36(11):950-957.
  28. Does tooth brushing influence the development and progression of non-inflammatory gingival recession? A systematic review. J Clin Periodontol 2007 Dec;34(12):1046-1061.
  29. Gingival recession in smokers and non-smokers with minimal periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol 2002 Feb;29(2):129-136.
  30. Effects of smoking on the periodontium. Med Pregl 2002 May-Jun;55(5-6):229-232.
  31. Exposure to tobacco smoking and periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol 2000 Jan;27(1):61-68.
  32. Smoking attributable periodontitis in the US: findings from NHANES III. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Periodontol 2000 May;71(5):743-751.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.