Citation Information :
Ivkovska AS, Bilbilova EZ, Georgiev Z, Emilija BV, Ivkovski L. Class II Antigen-presenting Dendritic Cells and Macrophages in Healthy and Carious Human Teeth. Int J Experiment Dent Sci 2018; 7 (2):63-67.
Antigen-presenting cells are capable of participating in the stimulation of T cells by antigen presentation. Antigen-presenting cells are considered essential for the induction and expansion of the immune reaction because their interaction with antigen is the first step in immune induction.
We have studied the distribution of class II expressing cells in developing, healthy and carious human teeth to clarify when human pulp acquires an immunologic defense potential. Antigen- expressing cells were identified immunohistochemically with HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies (for dendritic cells) and CD68 monoclonal antibodies (for macrophages).
In the pulp of unerupted developing teeth, HLA-DR-positive cells were distributed mainly in and around the odontoblast layer. A few CD68 positive cells were located more coronary around the blood vessels. In erupted teeth, HLA-DR-positive cells were located, for the most part just beneath the odontoblast layer. CD68 positive cells were also located coronary mainly around the blood vessels. Superficial caries lesions caused aggregation of HLA-DR-positive cells and macrophages in the dental pulp corresponding to the lesion.
Our results showed that human teeth are already equipped with an immunological defense potential before the eruption. In the initial stage of caries infection, an immune response mediated by class II expressing cells is initiated in human dental pulp.
Cox DS. Inflammation, hypersensitivity, and regulatory mediators. In: Contemporary oral microbiology and immunology. Slots J, Taubman MA (eds), 1992, Chapter 9, pp 135- 143, Mosby, Baltimore.
Jontell M, Gunray MN, Bergenholtz G. Immunocompetent cells in the normal dental pulp. J Dent Res 1987; 66:1149-1153.
Jontell M, Bergenholtz G, Scheynius A, et al. Dendritic cells and macrophages expressing class II antigens in the normal rat incisor pulp. J Dent Res 1988;67:1263-1266.
Jontell M, Bergenholtz G. Accessory cells in the immune defense of the dental pulp. Proc Finn Dent Soc 1992;88:344-355.
Okiji T, Kawashima N, Kosaka T, et al. An immunohistochemical study of the distribution of imunocompetent cells, especially macrophages and Ia antigen-expressing cells of heterogenous populations, in normal rat molar pulp. J Dent Res 1992;71(5):1196-1202.
Ohshima H, Kawahara I, Maeda T, et al. The relationship between odontoblasts and immunocompetent cells during dentinogenesis in rat incisors: an immunohistochemical study using OX6-monoclonal antibody. Arch Histol Cytol 1994;57:435-447.
Steinman PM. The dendritic cell system and its role in immunogenicity. Ann Rev Immunol 1991;9:271-296.
Ebersole JL. Cells and tissues of the immune system. In: Contemporary oral microbiology and immunology. Slots J, Taubman MA (eds), 1992, Chapter 6, pp 78-116, Mosby, Baltimore.
Fleming S. Immunophysiology: the Immune Response. In: Muir's Textbook of Pathology. Anderson JR (ed), 1985, 12th edn, 6.1-6.40. Arnold, Baltimore.
Jontell M, Jiang WH, Bergenholtz G. Ontogeny of class II antigen expressing cells in rat incisor pulp. Scand J Dent Res 1991;99:384-389.
Kosaka T, Okiji T, Kawashima N, et al. Changes in the distribution of various immunocompetent cells in rat molar pulp during tooth development. Jpn J Conserv Dent 1992;35:1474- 1480.
Bergenholtz G, Nagaoka S, Jontell M. Class II antigen expressing cells in experimentally induced pulpitis. Int Endod J 1991; 24:8-14.
Izumi T, Kobayashi I, Okamura K, et al. An immunohistochemical study of HLA-DR and á1- antichimotrypsin-positive cells in the pulp of human non-carious and carious teeth. Arch Oral Biol 1996; 41(7):627-630.
Ohshima H, Maeda T, Takano Y. The distribution and ultrastructure of class II MHC-positive cells in human dental pulp. Cell Tissue Res 1999;295:151-158.
Jontell M, Eklog C, Dahlgren UI, et al. Difference in capacity between macrophages and dendritic cells from rat incisor pulp to provide accesory signals to concavalin-A-stimulated T-lymphocytes. J Dent Res 1994;73(5):1056-1060.
Kim S, Trowbridge HO. Pulpal reaction to caries and dental procedures. In: Pathways of the pulp. Cohen S and Burns RC(eds), 1998, 7th edn, Chap 15, pp. 414-434, Mosby, Baltimore.
Farges JC, Alliot-Licht B, Baudouin C, et al. Odontoblast control of dental pulp inflammation triggered by cariogenic bacteria. Front Physiol 2013; 4:326.
Kamal AMM, Okiji T, Kawashima N, et al. Defence responses of dentin/pulp complex experimentally induced caries in rat molars: An immunohistochemical study on kinetics of pulpal Ia antigen-expressing cells and macrophages. J Endod 1997; 23(2):115-120.
Ohshima H, Sato O, Kawahara I, et al. Responses of immunocompetent cells to cavity preparation in rat molars: An immunohistochemical study using OX6-monoclonal antibody. Connect Tissue Res 1995;32:303-311.
Jontell M, Bergenholtz G, Scheynius A, et al. Dendritic cells and Macrophages expressing class II antigens in the normal rat incisor pulp. J Dent Res 1998;67(10):1263-1266.
Banchereau J, Steinman RM. Dendritic cells and the control of immunity. Nature 1998; 392:245-252.
Rescigno M, Urbano M, Valzasina B, et al. Dendritic cells express tight junction proteins and penetrate gut epithelial monolayers to sample bacteria. Nat Immunol 2001;2(4):361-367.
Yoshiba N, Yoshiba K, Nakamura H, et al. Immunohistochemical localization of HLA-DR-positive cells in unerupted and erupted normal and carious human teeth. J Dent Res 1996;22.75:1585-1589.
Lehner T. Immunology of oral diseases. 1992, 3rd edn. Chap. 4, pp. 28-47, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
Sakurai K, Okiji T, Suda H. Co-increase of nerve fibers and HLA-DR-and/or factor-XIIIa-expressing dendritic cells in dentinal caries-affected regions of the human dental pulp: An immunohistochemical study. J Dent Res 1999;78(10):1596- 1608.
Izumi T, Kobayashi I, Okamura K, et al. Immunohistochemical study on the immunocompetent cells of the pulp in human non-carious and carious teeth. Arch Oral Biol 1995;40(7):609- 614.
Nahn CL, Liewehr FR. Innate immune responses of the dental pulp to caries. J Endod 2007;33(6):643-651.
Sotirovska-Ivkovska A, Ivkovski L, Bajraktarova B, et al. An immunohistochemical study of antigen-presenting cells in the human dental pulp. Int Dent J 2000;(Supplement) 6:353.
Goldberg M, Farges JC, Lacerda-Pinheiro S, et al. Inflammatory and immunological aspects of dental pulp repair. Pharmacol Res 2008;58(2):137-147.
Farges JC, Alliot-Licht B, Baudouin C, et al. Odontoblast control of dental pulp inflammation triggered by cariogenic bacteria. Front Physiol 2013;4:326.
Jontell M, Okiji T, Dahlgreen U, et al. Immune defence mechanisms of the dental pulp. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 1998; 9(2):179-200.
Taubman MA. Immunological aspects of dental caries. In: Contemporary oral microbiology and immunology. Slots J, Taubman MA (eds), 1992, Chapter 29, pp 533-541, Mosby, Baltimore.