International Journal of Experimental Dental Science

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VOLUME 8 , ISSUE 1 ( January-June, 2019 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Aggressive Periodontitis Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Treatment: A Recent Review

Asmaa Missoum

Keywords : Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Aggressive periodontitis, Cone-beam computed tomography, Implants, Leukotoxin

Citation Information : Missoum A. Aggressive Periodontitis Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Treatment: A Recent Review. Int J Experiment Dent Sci 2019; 8 (1):11-22.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1189

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 00-06-2019

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2019; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Periodontitis is a microbially driven inflammatory disorder that affects the periodontium and continues to be a major dental health problem worldwide. The aggressive form, formerly known as juvenile periodontitis, is a pathological condition in which rapid destruction of the periodontal tissues and bone occurs at youth, resulting in loss of teeth. Factors such as lifestyle, host response genetic defects, and subgingival microbial consortium are responsible for the progression of the disease. This devastating loss of face esthetics and oral function affects younger patients emotionally, mostly adolescents, and requires costly and invasive treatments such as implants. Fortunately, recent discoveries regarding early diagnostic tools and biomarkers were proven to be effective in controlling aggressive periodontitis (AgP) progression and limiting it at its early stages. Other modified therapies such as bone augmentation and flap surgery has also ameliorated dental clinical parameters and minimized the necessity for dental implants. Each periodontal treatment is assigned depending on the stage and the severity of the disease, and for this reason, early management is crucial. This was achievable, thanks to novel diagnostic methods such as advanced cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging and high throughput analysis of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarkers. The review discusses and compares the latest case studies on the use of different periodontal therapies to treat AgP. Recent research about its pathogenesis and etiological factors such as microbial and genetic association is also highlighted.


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