International Journal of Experimental Dental Science

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2021 | January-June | Volume 10 | Issue 1

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Rajiv Saini

Human Intelligence

[Year:2021] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:1] [Pages No:00 - 00]

   DOI: 10.5005/ijeds-10-1-v  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Original Article

Melike Camgoz

Oral Healthcare Behaviors of Dental and Non-dental Turkish Students: A Comparative Study

[Year:2021] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:1 - 7]

Keywords: Dental students, Hiroshima University Dental Behavior Inventory, Non-dental/medical students, Oral healthcare behaviors

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1222  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: Oral health education, including tooth brushing, during childhood, is important since this affects individuals’ behaviors as adults. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the self-reported oral health behaviors of dental and non-dental/medical university students in Ankara, Turkey, by utilizing the Hiroshima University Dental Behavior Inventory (HU-DBI). Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 326 students from the faculty of dentistry and 331 students from non-dental faculties. All students were at various stages of education and were surveyed using the HU-DBI. The concise prediction about oral health behavior was studied from the replies to the twelve statements. To compare the total HU-DBI score between groups, an independent sample t-test was conducted. Results: Significant differences were detected among the student groups. The mean HU-DBI point of dental school students was significantly higher than non-dental students. Less dental students stated gingival bleeding, sticky deposits, being uncomfortable with the color of gums, and postponing going to a dentist if they do not have a toothache. Conclusion: The results we obtained marked that dental students have better dental attitudes than non-dental/medical students. This may be explained by dental students’ receiving dental curriculum and clinical training. Clinical significance: Comprehensive national programs aiming to teach oral healthcare, to support individuals’ oral hygiene applications, and to generalize preventive oral health information should be conducted starting from early childhood.



Sannapureddy Swapna

Interleukin-6: A Potential Salivary Biomarker for Dental Caries Progression—A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2021] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:8 - 13]

Keywords: Cytokines, Dental caries, ELISA, Interleukin 6, Saliva

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1220  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Resistance or susceptibility to caries is significantly correlated with the alterations in salivary proteins and cytokines, a useful biomarker in predicting caries’ risk and prognosis. Bacteria colonize the oral cavity and lead to inflammation, which induces both innate and adaptive immune responses by the host. A predominant cell of inflammation like T lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells expresses many pro-inflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine transiently produced in response to tissue injury and infections, thus correlating with the extent of inflammation and edema in the pulp. Studies have revealed a correlation between IL-6 levels and different pulpal conditions, which can contribute to the early diagnosis of pulpal inflammation in caries exposures. Aim and objective: To assess and compare the salivary IL-6 levels in patients before and after caries removal. Materials and methods: A total of 20 patients have participated in this study based on inclusion criteria. A pretreatment saliva (first) sample was collected, centrifuged, and stored at −80°C. Based on the clinical examination and investigations, the treatment plan was formulated for each patient. After oral prophylaxis and restorative treatment, the patients were followed up after 45 days. The posttreatment (second) saliva samples were collected, and both the samples (first and second) were subjected to the ELISA test to measure the IL-6 levels. Results: The obtained optical density values were statistically analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. As estimated in this study, the mean salivary IL-6 level was 15.32 ± 17.54, which reduced to 4.19 ± 1.45 after 45 days or one and half months of treatment. Conclusion: The levels of IL-6 reduced significantly after the complete removal of caries and restoring those teeth with restorative materials showing that there exists a strong correlation between the two. Clinical significance: A strong correlation is present between the IL-6 level and the extent and severity of the carious lesions. Posttreatment, there is a significant reduction of the IL-6 values, which can be attributed to the complete removal of dental caries.



Evrykleia Kourti, Ourania Pantelidou-Papadopoulou, Kosmas Tolidis, Dimitris Strakas

Evaluation of Smear Layer after Er:YAG Laser Irradiation in Middle and Apical Third of Mesial Root Canals: A Comparative SEM Investigation

[Year:2021] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:14 - 18]

Keywords: Er:YAG laser, Mesial root canals, Molars, Smear layer removal

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1221  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: This ex vivo study evaluated the efficiency of an Er:YAG laser (2940 nm) at different pulse energy levels to remove the smear layer with or without chelators from the middle and apical third of mesial roots. Materials and methods: Thirty-four mesial root canals of first mandibular molars (type II Vertucci) were divided into four groups of eight teeth each. Each group consisted of two subgroups each (A and B), regarding the irrigation protocol. In subgroup A, teeth were rinsed only by distilled water whereas, in subgroup B, teeth were rinsed by 5 mL 17% EDTA for 60 seconds, 5 mL 5% NaOCL, and 5 mL distilled water. The rest two teeth were used as control groups. After coronal access, all teeth were instrumented up to size F3 (30/0.09) and, then, the experimental groups were irradiated by an Er:YAG laser (2940 nm). Four different pulse energy values were tested, namely 30, 50, 70, and 80 mJ to irradiate the roots in group I, group II, group III, and group IV, respectively. The control group (n = 2) was instrumented and rinsed as experimental groups (subgroup B) but not irradiated. Teeth were observed under SEM. Results were statistically analyzed with the Kruskal–Wallis test. Results: There is a statistically significant difference between groups irrigated with chelators and groups with distilled water before laser irradiation in the apical third. Group IB (0.75 W) showed a statistically significant outcome in the apical part. The results showed no statistical difference between subgroup B and the control group. Conclusion: The presence of a chelating factor may play an important role in the laser mechanism of smear layer removal from the apical part of narrow and curved root canals.



Jayalakshmi Pandranki, Jai Kiran Killada, Maddula Madhavi Krishna

SARS-CoV-2 Infection and ACE-2 Expression in Children: An Overview

[Year:2021] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:19 - 24]

Keywords: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, Clinical manifestations, Coronavirus disease-2019 in children, SARS-CoV-2

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1218  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


SARS-CoV-2 has marked a new era in the medical field with a wide array of signs and symptoms. The clinical manifestations may vary from simple sore throat to severe multiple organ failure causing death in adults. The severity of the disease was relatively mild in children compared to adults but the preliminary evidence reveals high proportions of asymptomatic infection which contributes to a viral transmission. It still remains ambiguous why children are less severely affected than adults. This literature provides a comprehensive review of epidemiology, vulnerability, pathophysiology, organ-specific systemic manifestations of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), its clinical course similarities and differences between child and adult with a special focus on the reasons behind the reduced disease severity in children.



Ankita A Katkurwar, Swapna A Mahale

Effectiveness of Amniotic Membrane with Coronally Advanced Flap in the Treatment of Gingival Recession in Adult Patients: A Systematic Review

[Year:2021] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:11] [Pages No:25 - 35]

Keywords: Amnion membrane, Chronic periodontitis, Coronally advanced flap, Gingival recession, Placental membrane, Root coverage, Systematic review

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1223  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of amnion membrane on the clinical parameters when used in the treatment of Millers Class I and Class II gingival recession in chronic periodontitis patients along with coronally advanced flap (CAF). Data resources: Four databases MEDLINE (by PubMed), Cochrane database, EBSCO, and Google Scholar were explored to identify the studies in English up to April 2020. An additional hand search of relevant journals was also done. Two independent reviewers screened the retrieved articles using the particular inclusion criteria. Randomized control trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of amnion membrane with CAF in treatment of Millers Class I and Class II gingival recession in chronic periodontitis patients were included in the study. Outcome variables examined were recession width (RW), recession depth (RD), clinical attachment level (CAL), keratinized width of gingiva (KWG), probing pocket depth (PD), and gingival thickness (GT). Data were analyzed using Revman5.3 software. The mean differences and 95% confidence interval were used to illustrate the estimate of effect size. Study selection: Seven relevant articles were recognized for data procurement. One hundred and twenty patients with 244 gingival recession sites in total with an age range between 18 years and 55 years of participants were selected. There is an equal effect in both the groups for the RD reduction. For RW reduction, the result was in the favor of amnion membrane with CAF group, whereas for CAL gain, PD reduction, KWG gain, and GT gain results favored the different biomaterial other than amnion membrane but no statistical significant difference was found. Conclusion: Within the limitation of the study, it seems that the amnion membrane can be used successfully along with CAF to treat the gingival recession.



Shreya , Praveen S Samant, Vipul Srivastava, Raju Chauhan, Kishan Agarwal

Cryotherapy: A Comprehensive Review on Physiology, Advent and Implications in Endodontics

[Year:2021] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:36 - 40]

Keywords: Cryogenic treatment, Cryotherapy, Nickel-titanium endodontic instruments, Postendodontic pain

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1217  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: The aim is to review and discuss the concept of cryotherapy, its physiology, and different clinical implications in endodontics. Background: Cryotherapy alludes to diminishing the tissue temperature for therapeutic purposes. In the field of endodontics, it has started evolving due to its therapeutic properties and its effect on nickel-titanium endodontic instruments in terms of yielding mechanical properties. By using specific keywords, an electronic search of scientific papers was carried out on the entire PubMed database. The last access was august 2020, using combinations of the pre-defined keywords. Review results: The electronic search yielded 253 papers from the PubMed database; in light of inclusion and exclusion measures which were explicitly foreordained, 13 papers were distinguished as appropriate to the inclusion criteria. Then, a detailed study of all the references of these articles was done manually and electronically. At that point, 25 additional articles were chosen through hand search, the full content of the apparent multitude of articles recovered, and the review was finished. By pooling the separated information from chosen papers, the reviewed information was synthesized. Conclusion: Lately, by demonstrating great promising outcomes with the utilization of cryotherapy, it has demonstrated to have a decent possibility for its utilization as a therapeutic aid in endodontics. Clinical significance: Cryotherapy is a cost-effective treatment that can be advantageous in numerous clinical circumstances to provide painless and safer endodontic treatment.



Shiny Inasu, Biju Thomas

A Pink Smile: Depigmentation Using Diode Laser and Surgical Scalpel

[Year:2021] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:41 - 44]

Keywords: Depigmentation, Healing, Laser, Periodontist, Smile, Surgery

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1224  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


A smile can bring happiness into one's life and also create positivity in the surrounding environment. Black or brown gums is a very common problem among all races of men and women that one complains to a periodontist. This dark color appearance of gums is due to hyperactivity of melanin cells found in the gingival tissue. Different procedures are in practice for gingival depigmentation such as scalpel gingivectomy, cryosurgery, laser with different wavelength, chemicals, electrosurgery, bur abrasion, etc. In this case report, depigmentation procedure is being carried out using surgical scalpel and diode laser and to find out which technique is effective and provide less postoperative discomfort.



Sumit Munjal, Seema Munjal

Osseodensification-driven Maxillary Sinus Lift along with Sticky Bone Augmentation: A Novel Concept for Dental Implant Placement

[Year:2021] [Month:January-June] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:45 - 47]

Keywords: Crestal sinus lift, Osseodensification, Sinus membrane, Sticky bone

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1219  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: The purpose is to present a novel technique for normal sinus lift in the upper jaw that is feasible in cases where other approaches are contraindicated. Acknowledging indigenous growth factors and precise osseodensification (OD) significantly reduces biological costs. Background: The lowest success of implant rehabilitation in the posterior maxilla has made the surgeons ponder on the frequent reduction of alveolar ridge height beneath the sinus. Although the direct sinus lift and osteotomes addressed the issue, the associated risks of parasthesia, perforation, and patient morbidity were a point of concern. Case description: A 51-year-old male patient's blood was centrifuged emulating a standard protocol. Densah Burs were used to prepare the fixture site on OD principles. Next, the platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) extracted from the spin-off was mixed with the graft NB Dental Morsels, to form a sticky bone. As planned, the 3.75 × 10 mm implant, drove the material under 35 rpm into the final desired osteotomy depth. Upon ensuring a 25-Ncm torque stability, a healing abutment was tightened over it and the flap was sutured finally. Conclusion: The explicated implant methodology is feasible in a dental setup for its ease and non-invasiveness. Clinical significance: A relatively new technique demonstrated in our study provides a choice of modality in sinus floor elevation (SFE) in such circumstances.


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