International Journal of Experimental Dental Science

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2018 | July-December | Volume 7 | Issue 2

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[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

   DOI: 10.5005/ijeds-7-2-iv  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Guest Editorial

Dean A Kolbinson

Guest Editorial

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

   DOI: 10.5005/ijeds-7-2-v  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Original Article

Murude Yazan, Fethi Atil, Zeynep B Gonen, Ismail D Kocyigit, Umut Tekin

A Novel Experimental Model for Dental Implant Research

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:43 - 47]

Keywords: Animal, Experimental, Implant, Model

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1174  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Femur, tibia and iliac bone have been generally preferred at previous experimental implant investigations. Bone mineral density, corticocancellous content of these regions are different from jaws because of having endochondral origins. Immobilization and animal care are difficulties of animal studies used extremities. This study aims to describe a new animal model for experimental dental implant research by using rabbits’ mandibles to eliminate disadvantages of other defined regions. Materials and methods: Custom designed and produced implants were implemented at identified mandibular molar areas of 10 male New Zealand rabbits adequately far away to teeth apices and mental foramen. Four mm lengthened, 2.8 mm diameter SLA Nucleoss (Ýzmir, Turkey) specially produced micro dental implants were placed at identified regions of rabbits’ mandibles. Two implants were used for each rabbit. Osseointegration was observed two months after the operation histomorphology. Results: Osseointegration was not actualized at around three implants and finished successfully without infection at around all other implants. Newly formed osteoid matrix and bone tissue were evaluated in all specimens histologically except three implants. This new mandible implant model presumedly shows more similar results about osseointegration to human experiments because of the intramembranous ossification. This model prevents the movement difficulty and fracture risk caused by extremities usage. Postoperative care gets easier, and surgical approach is more invasive than previously used experimental studies in this model. Conclusion: Specially designed mini implants and more sensitive manipulation are necessities of this new approach. Previously used rabbit models can be compared with this mandible model with regard to implant osseointegration.


Original Article

Jutharat Jongphairotkhosit, Supanee Suntornlohanakul, Nattaporn Youravong

Prediction of Lip Changes after Incisor Retraction in Class II Division 1

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:48 - 53]

Keywords: Class II division 1, Incisor retraction, Lip changes, Thai female adults

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1175  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To evaluate the relationship of lip changes in anteroposterior direction and incisor retraction in Thai female patients with class II division 1 malocclusion. Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 100 pairs of pre- and posttreatment lateral cephalograms. All cephalograms were derived from class II division 1 Thai female adults who were treated with four premolar extraction and edgewise technique. Sixteen linear and eight angular measurements were made and evaluated for dental and lip changes. Paired t-test was used for testing the difference between before and after orthodontic treatment. Pearson correlation analysis was used for evaluating factors that correlate with lip changes and stepwise multiple linear regression was performed to make the prediction of lip changes and incisor retraction. Results: There was a significant correlation between lip changes and incisor retraction. The prediction of upper and lower lip changes in antero-posterior direction was mainly described by the cervical point of upper incisors (HcUI) (R2= 0.29), the tip of lower incisors (HtLI) and lower lip thickness (LL thickness) (R2 = 0.48). Conclusion: Ratios of upper and lower incisors at tip point to upper and lower lips retraction were 1:0.46 and 1:1, respectively. The coefficient of determination for predicting upper and lower lips was 0.29 and 0.48 showing low to moderate predictability for lip changes.


Original Article

Nabila Ahmed Sedky, Aseel H Al Hasson

Effect of Audiovisual Modeling on 5–10-year-old Children's Anxiety and Cooperation Behavior in First and Second Dental Visits

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:9] [Pages No:54 - 62]

Keywords: Anxiety and behavior, Audiovisual modeling, Frankle Scale, Randomized controlled clinical trial, Venham scale

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1176  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objectives: Assessing the effect of audiovisual modeling distraction on anxiety and cooperation behavior in 1st and 2nd dental visits of Saudi children aged 5–10 year-old in Qassim province. Materials and methods: Randomized controlled clinical trial conducted at College of Dentistry, Qassim University. After exclusion of nonconformity cases, sample size consisted of 98 patients distributed equally to test and control groups based on children's anxiety level. Quantification of children's behavior was based on Venham Scale for anxiety level and behavior rating scale was based on Frankle scale. Ratings were performed by a dentist other than the treating dentist and who was blinded on study procedure. Statistical analyses were carried out at a significance level of <0.05 and 0.01. Results: No statistical difference was detected for children in Group I (without audiovisual modeling) during their 1st and 2nd visits for anxiety and cooperation scales (p = 0.855 and 0.787, respectively). For group II (before and after audiovisual modeling), a statistically significant difference was found in anxiety and cooperation levels of children in the 2nd visit in relation to 1st visit (p = 0.010 and 0.000, respectively). Regarding studied groups in the 2nd visit, a statistically significant difference was found in group II as children who were watching the cartoon film in the 2nd visit before any dental treatment were less anxious and more cooperative with the dentist (p = 0.004 and 0.000, respectively). Conclusion: Audiovisual modeling in the form of a film/video is successful in reducing disruptive behavior in children during their dental treatment producing a less anxious and more cooperative patient.



Ana S Ivkovska, Efka Z Bilbilova, Zlatko Georgiev, Bajraktarova V Emilija, Ljube Ivkovski

Class II Antigen-presenting Dendritic Cells and Macrophages in Healthy and Carious Human Teeth

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:63 - 67]

Keywords: Dendritic cells, Dental caries, Developing tooth, Human dental pulp, Macrophages, Immunohistochemistry

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1177  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Antigen-presenting cells are capable of participating in the stimulation of T cells by antigen presentation. Antigen-presenting cells are considered essential for the induction and expansion of the immune reaction because their interaction with antigen is the first step in immune induction. We have studied the distribution of class II expressing cells in developing, healthy and carious human teeth to clarify when human pulp acquires an immunologic defense potential. Antigen- expressing cells were identified immunohistochemically with HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies (for dendritic cells) and CD68 monoclonal antibodies (for macrophages). In the pulp of unerupted developing teeth, HLA-DR-positive cells were distributed mainly in and around the odontoblast layer. A few CD68 positive cells were located more coronary around the blood vessels. In erupted teeth, HLA-DR-positive cells were located, for the most part just beneath the odontoblast layer. CD68 positive cells were also located coronary mainly around the blood vessels. Superficial caries lesions caused aggregation of HLA-DR-positive cells and macrophages in the dental pulp corresponding to the lesion. Our results showed that human teeth are already equipped with an immunological defense potential before the eruption. In the initial stage of caries infection, an immune response mediated by class II expressing cells is initiated in human dental pulp.



Nabila Ahmed Sedky

Academic Performance for Undergraduate Dental Students at Qassim University, in Relation to Multidimensional Perfectionism, and Behavioral Professionalism: An Exploratory Study

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:11] [Pages No:68 - 78]

Keywords: Academic performance, Behavioral professionalism, Dental students, Multidimensional perfectionism

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1178  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objectives: Assessing multidimensional perfectionism and behavioral professionalism among undergraduate dental students and exploring students’ academic performance in relation to their professional attitudes and behaviors, multidimensional perfectionism traits and gender. Materials and methods: All undergraduate students were invited to complete two anonymous forms for multidimensional perfectionism and behavioral professionalism. Academic performance was detected through students’ cumulative grade point average (CGPA) after final exams. Statistical analyses were carried out at p <0.05 and 0.01. Results: Students rated themselves as being highest in self-oriented perfectionism (SOP), then socially-prescribed perfectionism (SPP) and other-oriented perfectionism (OOP), with 36.4% categorized as adaptive perfectionists, 27.07% maladaptive perfectionists and 36.68% non-perfectionists. For professionalism, “I demonstrate excellent skills in this area” was the highest percentage of students’ responses (38.62%). The majority of students (48.91%) got 3–4 CGPA. Male students reported higher mean OOP and SPP characteristics (67.92 + 12.11 and 70.41 + 12.43, respectively) than females. Female students showed higher mean CGPA (2.85 + 0.391) than males (t-test = –11.969, p = 0.000). A strong negative correlation was detected between perfectionists and SOP, behavioral professionalism as well as CGPA. Female students, who carry high SOP characters, with adaptive perfectionistic characteristics and achieved higher CGPA scores tend to seek challenges and improve themselves, they would 1.0 time further strive to achieve greater productivity than males with OOP and SPP traits. Conclusion: Students with adaptive perfectionistic characteristics were significantly had higher CGPAs. Female students, who had high SOP traits, with adaptive perfectionistic characteristics achieved higher CGPA and be susceptible to pursue challenges and be perfect than their male counterparts with OOP and SPP characteristics.



Dean Kolbinson, Brendon Reynaud, Andrew Doig, Eric Tuttosi, Alan Heinrichs, Hyun Lim

Use of a Fluorescent Light Source as an Adjunct to Traditional Methods to Detect Composite Resin Dental Restorations

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:79 - 84]

Keywords: Agreement, Composite resin, Dental diagnosis, Dental restorations, Detection, Fluorescent light

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1179  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To determine if there is a difference in detecting composite restorations by using traditional methods as compared to using an ultraviolet light source and if it would be reasonable to augment the traditional method with the use of an alternate light source. Materials and methods: Twenty-two participants were examined independently by one dentist with traditional visual and tactile dental examination methods (using an overhead light, a dental mirror, and a dental explorer) while simultaneously viewing a pantomograph of the patients and by another dentist utilizing an ultraviolet light source, an overhead light, and an intraoral mirror. The number and position of detected composite restorations for each method was calculated and compared. Comparisons between the two methods were performed using two-sample t-tests. All statistical tests were two-tailed with a significance level of 0.05. Results: Differences in the number of surfaces restored with composite restorations [11.0 (SD = ±6.2) and 9.6 (SD = ±6.4) for the manual and light exams respectively] and the number of composite restorations [8.1 (SD = ±3.5) and 7.1 (SD = ±3.8) for the manual and light exams respectively] between the manual and light examination methods were not statistically significant (p values = 0.45 and 0.39). Results from the study suggest that the level of agreement between the two examination methods was 81.1%, but that neither method is without the potential for inaccuracy regarding composite restoration detection. Conclusion and clinical significance: The study indicates that the use of an ultraviolet light source can be an adjunctive clinical tool for the practicing clinical dentist to add to the traditional visual, tactile, and radiographic examination methods, increasing the accuracy and reliability of diagnostic examinations



Ihsan F Ertugrul, Basak Yazkan, Ceylan Ç Ertugrul

Protective Effects of Base Cements against Intrapulpal Temperature Rise during Curing of Composite Resins: An In Vitro Study by Pulpal Blood Microcirculation Model

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:85 - 90]

Keywords: Base cements, Intrapulpal temperature increase, In vitro study, Light curing of composite resins, Pulp microcirculation, Thermal insulating

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1180  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Measuring the temperature increases in the pulp chamber during polymerization of resin composites when various base cements were applied on the cavity floor, by using a pulp microcirculation simulation model with physiologic temperature. Materials and methods: Study performed with four groups of 10 experiments each. Class V cavity with 3 x 4 x 2 mm3 size was prepared on human mandibular premolar tooth with 1 mm pulpal wall thickness. Pulpal microcirculation and temperature regulation of the tooth within physiological limits performed with an experimental mechanism. In groups 1–3, polycarboxylate cement (PC), conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) were applied as base cements, respectively. No base material was used in group 4. Restorations were completed with the same composite resin and cured for equal time (20 s) using Demi™ Plus Dental- Curing-LED-Light (1200 mW/cm2). Temperature increases (Δt) in the pulp during curing of resins were recorded and statistically analyzed with Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis test. Results: The highest Δt values were measured in group 4 (5.76 ± 0.25), group 3 (5.44 ± 0.19), group 1 (4.95 ± 0.32) and group 2 (4.86 ± 0.4), respectively. There were statistically significant differences between group 2 and group 4, and groups 1 and group 4 in Δt values (p = 0.0001). Conclusion: Applying base cements is significantly effective in reducing the temperature increases generated in the pulp tissue. PC and GIC have been found to be more effective than RMGIC in preventing the pulp tissue against thermal stimuli. Clinical significance: This research is important to provide to clinicians critical information about the temperature increases which may occur in the pulp during curing of composite resins and precautions to be taken.



H Yildiz, R Barbaros, Nilsun Bagis

Maxillary Sinus Lifting

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:91 - 97]

Keywords: Implant dentistry, Osseos surgery, Sinus lifting

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1181  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The use of dental implants in the restoration of toothless areas is quite common. However, in some cases, we can not use favorable implants in the maxillary molar region. This is because atrophy is observed following tooth extraction in this region. If an implant is desired in these areas, there may not be enough bone height, especially if the period between tooth extraction and implant construction is too long. In some cases, restorations are performed with short implants, curved implants, and zygoma implants, but these implants do not have sufficient strength against extreme occlusal forces. Therefore, augmentation of the maxillary sinus is required to use suitable implants, where the atrophied maxillary can be more resistant to occlusal forces in the molar region. This review aims to evaluate the current methods and materials used in sinus augmentation and also explain about complications and treatments that are frequently encountered during and after the operation.



Camila P Ferrúa, Cainá C do Amaral, Roberta Giorgi, Tiago Garcia, Fernanda Nedel

How has Tooth Manipulation been Conducted for Dental Pulp Stem Cells Isolation? A Scoping Review

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:38] [Pages No:98 - 135]

Keywords: Dental pulp, Dental pulp stem cell, Manipulation, Scoping review, Stem cell

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1182  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The aim of this study was to realize a scoping review the literature to verify how tooth manipulation for dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolation has been conducted and if a standard tooth, preparation protocol for DPSCs isolation exists. The electronic search was conducted without initial date restriction up to and including April 2014 in PubMed, Scopus, Scielo, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases to identify studies that described the methodology used for DPSCs isolation. Two hundred and twenty-two articles were included and the information analysis was performed concerning dental manipulation and pulp tissue processing. Furthermore, the quality of included studies was evaluated through the assessment of the risk of bias. This scoping review established a platform for dental manipulation protocols for DPSCs isolation purposes. Over the past years, many studies have been conducted using DPSCs. However, there is a clear lack of standardization in tooth manipulation before DPSCs isolation. Currently, given a large number of variables in cell isolation techniques and all possible consequences in the in vitro behavior of cells, it is important to reinforce the importance of standard protocols to obtain a uniform cell culture.



Sujala G Durgekar, Nagaraj Kolur, Harsha Puttaraju

Twin-layered Twin Block

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:136 - 138]

Keywords: Deep anterior bite, Skeletal class II, Trimming, Twin-block appliance

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1183  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Twin-block appliance is a widely used myofunctional appliance to correct a skeletal discrepancy in growing class II individuals. In patients with deep anterior bite and horizontal growth pattern, the posterior maxillary block has to be trimmed for the active eruption of lower molars to flatten the curve of spee. The upper block is trimmed 1–2 mm every appointment to encourage lower molar eruption. By keeping the minimal clearance between the lower molar and upper block the tongue is prevented from spreading laterally between the teeth. This might prevent the eruption of mandibular posterior teeth. We have modified the twin block appliance by incorporating two colors alternatively for the maxillary block. This modification acts as a guide for controlled trimming of the upper block. Conclusion: It is a simple and effective way to prevent the development of lateral open bite during the active phase of twin block therapy. Clinical significance: Prevents excessive trimming of the blocks hence reduces the risk of developing posterior open bite due to tongue spreading laterally between the teeth.



Sapna Singla, Gurvanit Lehl

Nonsyndromic Familial Hypodontia in Four Members of a Family: A Case Report

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:139 - 142]

Keywords: Congenital absence, Familial, Hypodontia, Nonsyndromic, Maxillary lateral incisor

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1184  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Hypodontia constitutes one of the most common developmental anomalies in humans. Depending upon its severity, it can have a great impact on the oral health of the affected individuals. The present report concerns four members of a family with hypodontia. Whereas three members had unilateral missing maxillary lateral incisor only, the fourth member had bilateral missing maxillary lateral incisors and right mandibular second premolar. Their general examination did not suggest any syndrome present. On the basis of familial incidence and the absence of any clinical features associated with any syndrome, the final diagnosis of nonsyndromic familial hypodontia was made.



Kalani S Hettiarachchi, Ruwan D Jayasinghe, Chandira Gunasena, Primali Jayasooriya

Juvenile Pemphigus Vulgaris as a Differential Diagnosis for Chronic Generalized Oral Ulceration in an Adolescent: A Case Report and a Review of Literature

[Year:2018] [Month:July-December] [Volume:7] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:143 - 143]

Keywords: Juvenile, Oral ulceration, Pemphigus vulgaris

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10029-1185  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune disorder involving the mucocutaneous tissues. Pathogenesis of this disease causes auto-antibodies against desmogleins in desmosomes which leads to intraepithelial blister formation. It is a rare but potentially life-threatening disease with a prevalence of 1 to 9 per 1 x 109. The disease has an equal sex predilection and commonly occurs in the 5th and 6th decade of life. Clinically, oral lesions are more evident than skin lesions. Diagnosis of the disease is by clinicopathological correlation with the definitive diagnosis requiring immunofluorescent investigations. The mainstay of treatment involves immunosuppression through the use of corticosteroids and other steroid-sparing agents like dapsone, azathioprine, and methotrexate. Presentation of this entity in an adolescent is a rare occurrence, and this may lead to misdiagnosis of the condition. Quality of life of these patients can be improved by controlling the disease through early diagnosis and necessary management. In this article, we report a case of a 15-year-old male patient diagnosed with Juvenile PV (JPV) and discuss the possibility of pemphigusvulgaris as a differential diagnosis for chronic generalized oral ulceration in an adolescent with a brief review of the literature.


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