How to cite this article:
Patil SB, Khanvilkar SR. Assessment of Protein-repellent and Antibacterial Capability of Dental Adhesive and Primer Containing 2-Methacryloyloxyethyl Phosphorylcholine in Primary Dentition. Int J Experiment Dent Sci 2019; 8 (2):33-37.
Aim: Resin composites are one of the favorite restorative materials used for treating early childhood caries (ECC). The biofilm accumulation at the microgaps between teeth and restoration with resin composite materials is more than other restorative materials. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the protein-repellent capability by measuring the total amount of protein adsorbed and anti-bacterial activity by measuring the production of lactic acid and colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) incorporated into dental adhesive and primer.
Materials and methods: The 2-MPC powder was added into dental primer and dental adhesive at mass fractions of 7.5% by mass individually. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva was used as the inoculum. Laury\'s method of protein estimation was used for measurement of total protein adsorbed. To evaluate the lactic acid production, enzymatic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) method was employed. Tryptic soy blood agar and Mitis Salivarius agar were used for measuring the CFU counts for total microorganisms, total streptococci and only Streptococcus mutans.
Results: Results indicated that resin disks fabricated using dental adhesive and primer containing 7.5% 2-MPC significantly reduced the protein adsorption, lactic acid production, and total streptococci and S. mutans counts (p < 0.05).
Clinical significance: Incorporation of protein repellent into dental adhesive and primer could help repel bacterial attachment and plaque buildup, assisting in the reduction of secondary caries.
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Garg A, Mehra P, Singh B. Evaluation of Difference in Healing of Gingival Tissue after Frenectomy Done by Laser as Compared to Conventional Surgical Technique: A Case Study. Int J Experiment Dent Sci 2019; 8 (2):38-41.
The frenum is a fold of mucous membrane that attaches the lip and the cheek with the alveolar mucosa, the gingiva, and the underlying periosteum. The labial frenum may jeopardize the gingival health when it impedes oral hygiene, or when it is attached too closely to the gingival margin, thus, resulting in the formation of diastema between anterior teeth and/or traction of the attached gingiva. The management of such an aberrant frenum can be accomplished by performing a frenectomy procedure using different techniques with different outcomes of healing. Here, in the present study, healing after frenectomy performed using a laser has been compared to healing after frenectomy done using conventional surgical technique.
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Türker N. Evaluation of Different Bar Materials in Terms of Stress Transmission in All-on-four and All-on-three Concepts: A Three-dimensional Finite Element Analysis. Int J Experiment Dent Sci 2019; 8 (2):42-46.
Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of materials used in bar construction in all-on-four (AOF) and all-on-three (AOT) concepts on stress transmission by three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA) method.
Materials and methods: Two models were designed to simulate the AOF and AOT concepts in the mandible. For the AOF concept, the mesial implants were placed at the canine teeth position and the distal implants were inclined 40° distally, with the neck portions protruding from the second premolar region on both sides. For the AOT concept, one of the implants was placed in the middle of the two incisors in the mandible and the other two implants were placed distally in the first premolar region. Bars and prostheses were designed and the model parts were combined. Four different bar materials were defined after creating four different models for both concepts. A force of 100 N was applied perpendicular to the long axis of the left first molar tooth from the central fossa. Elastic strain values of bar structures and bone tissue were obtained.
Results: The lowest strain values in both AOF concept and AOT concept were observed in the cobalt–chromium bar structure. In both concepts, the lowest strain values in bone tissue were observed in models produced with type IV gold alloy bars, while the highest strain values were observed in models produced with silver–palladium alloy bars.
Conclusion: In AOF and AOT concepts, the type of bar material affects the strains in the bar structure and bone tissue. The material with the lowest strain observed in the bar material and the material causing the lowest tension in the bone tissue are not the same.
Clinical significance: In the AOF and AOT concepts, which are fixed prosthetic treatment options with a less number of implants, the type of bar material used is important for the success of the treatment.
Various methods have been adopted to reduce orthodontic treatment time. These include biological approaches using vitamin D and prostaglandins; relaxin cytokines that include lymphocytes and monocytes-derived factors, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), etc.; surgical methods such as corticotomy, piezocision, interseptal alveolar surgery, osteotomy, etc.; and noninvasive device-assisted methods such as mechanical vibration, photobiomodulation, etc. The biological and surgical approaches although more predictable have their own limitations of acceptance by patients. The present study, therefore, is a narrative review literature on the noninvasive methods to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement. A review of 56 articles related to the studies, using noninvasive methods, was done from 1987 to 2019. Photobiomodulation is one of the most studied noninvasive methods and has shown success in reducing the treatment time. More research is needed to make these methods more accessible and patient friendly.
Aim: To review local and systemic effects of fluoride (F) in alginate impression materials.
Background: Alginate is the most frequently used impression material in dental practices. The alginate powder contains F compounds as an integral ingredient.
Materials and methods: Reviewed articles are categorized into three main categories: laboratory studies including F release, enamel solubility, and enamel F uptake. Animal experiment assessed the anticaries effect of topically applied F and release of F from subcutaneously implanted alginate. Human studies involved F distribution from alginate impressions to saliva and circulatory system as well as alginate ingestion and inhalation of the alginate dust.
Review results:In vitro and in vivo findings indicated that alginate continuously released F in aqueous solution. Topical application of alginate resulted in significant enamel F uptake and reduced enamel solubility. Animal experiment showed that topically applied alginate resulted in a significant inhibition of caries. Subcutaneously implanted alginate continuously released F. Human studies revealed that F in alginate impression are readily taken in and distributed to saliva and blood. Deliberately ingested alginate raised plasma F to considerable level. The F inhaled from emitted alginate dust did not elevate the plasma F level.
Conclusion: The outcome of this overview indicates that alginate impression materials are rich source of F delivery to dental tissues, oral fluids, and systemic circulation.
Clinical significance: The beneficial local effects of F in alginate impression materials have been discussed. On the other hand, alginate impressions elevate the plasma F levels if the pooled saliva is swallowed or part of the material is accidentally ingested. Dental professionals require to familiarize with these aspects.
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Govindarajulu R, Mathimaraiselvan N, Seshadri PR, Swaminathan S, Sankar L. Mending with Hard Tissue Augmentation: A Perioesthetic Approach. Int J Experiment Dent Sci 2019; 8 (2):58-62.
Background: Alveolar ridge deficiency can be due to many causes like infection, trauma, and tooth loss. This will create an anatomically unfavorable condition for the placement of implant-supported prosthesis, for which complete construction of alveolar bone with variable regenerative surgical procedures have become more accurate. This guided bone regeneration (GBR)-based surgical technique can be attempted either during implant placement or priorly to give proper restoration with longer and extensive prognosis.
Aim: This case report explains the hard tissue augmentation procedure with autogenous monocortical block bone graft harvested from the mandibular symphysis region.
Case description: A 22-year-old male patient came to the department of periodontics with a complaint of missing right central incisor for the past 2 months. On examination, Seibert\'s class III alveolar ridge deficiency with moderate depth was observed in the region of missing tooth.
Conclusion: Augmentation of the height and width of the alveolar ridge defect (Seibert\'s class III ridge deficiency) using an autogenous chin graft has been applied in this patient. After few months, a significant increase in the area of the ridge defect was achieved.
Clinical significance: A combination of block graft obtained from the symphysis, along with osseous coagulum, is a predictable technique in augmenting atrophic ridge deficiency. It is still considered the gold standard compared with other grafting procedures. Ridge augmentation in the anterior region for this patient provided sufficient bone volume for implant placement as well as an esthetically satisfactory appearance.