How to cite this article:
Moskowitz H, Mendenhall M. Comparative Analysis of Antiviral Efficacy of Four Different Mouthwashes against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2: An In Vitro Study. Int J Experiment Dent Sci 2020; 9 (1):1-3.
Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy and cytotoxicity of four different mouthwashes containing 1.5% hydrogen peroxide, 0.2% povidone, 0.12% chlorhexidine and 100 ppm molecular iodine for their ability to inactivate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Materials and methods: The SARS-CoV-2 virus stocks were grown in minimum essential medium (MEM) test media, supplemented with 2.0% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 50 μg/mL gentamicin. Test solutions and virus were incubated at room temperature for three contact times of 15, 30, and 60 seconds. The solutions were then neutralized by a 1/10 dilution in test media containing 10% FBS. Neutralized samples were then incubated for 5 days at 37 ± 2°C at 5% CO2. The test plates were then scored for their cytopathic effect and the log-reduction value (LRV) of the test solution was compared to the negative control (water). Results: The results showed that the LRV for a 100 ppm molecular iodine oral rinse was significantly greater, at each exposure time, compared with the other three oral rinses in the study with no associated cytotoxicity. The 100 ppm molecular iodine rinse exhibited an LRV of 2.6 at 15 seconds and complete inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 at both 30 seconds and also at 60 seconds with LRV greater than 3.6 for each of those contact times. Conclusion: The spread of infection through aerosol and splatter has long been considered one of the main concerns in the dental community. A preprocedural rinse with 100 ppm molecular iodine will play a vital role in combating COVID-19 pandemic by preventing the spread of infection.
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Osar İO, Findik Y, Akpinar O. TNF Receptor Superfamily Members RANK, RANKL, OPG Pathway as Osteoimmunological Biomarker of Bone Healing after Orthognathic Surgery. Int J Experiment Dent Sci 2020; 9 (1):4-7.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily member receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK), RANK-ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) pathway as osteoimmunological biomarker of bone healing after surgery. These biomarkers play an important role in the bone repair and healing after orthognathic surgery. The aim of our study was to evaluate levels of the RANKL–RANK–OPG cytokine system as osteoimmunological biomarker of bone healing after orthognathic surgery. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB, RANKL, and OPG were evaluated in 25 patients who is undergoing orthognathic surgery. Blood samples were collected before the operation, after 1st day, and 10th day of the operation. Differences among OPG, RANK, and RANKL averages were not statistically significant in all time levels and operation types. In this study, we concluded that RANKL/OPG ratio and blood serum RANK levels may show bone remodeling activity and bone remodeling activity after orthognathic surgery, although there is a need for further extensive studies.
Swapna V Devarasanahalli,
Ranjini M Aswathanarayana,
Mohd Sibghatullah Khatib,
Roopa R Nadig
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Devarasanahalli SV, Kurian B, Aswathanarayana RM, Khatib MS, Nadig RR. Comparison of the Antibacterial Efficiency of Herbal Extracts of Aloe Vera Leaves and Mushroom against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus: An In Vitro Study. Int J Experiment Dent Sci 2020; 9 (1):8-12.
Background and objectives: This study evaluated and compared the antimicrobial efficacy and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of chlorhexidine (CHX) 0.12% and extracts of aloe vera and mushroom against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Materials and methods: The agar disk diffusion and the broth microdilution method were used to check the antimicrobial activity of 0.12% CHX and aqueous extracts of two medicinal plants. The test samples were divided as follow: S. mutans, group I: CHX, group II: aloe vera, and group III: mushroom. Lactobacillus, group I: CHX, group II: aloe vera, and group III: mushroom. The zone of inhibition and MIC values were tabulated and the data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests. Results: Chlorhexidine shows maximum antibacterial action against S. mutans and Lactobacillus followed by the mushroom extract and then aloe vera extracts with the zones of inhibition of (20.3 mm/24.13), (17.03/16.05), and (14.09/14.26), respectively. Both the extracts had MIC value of 80 μg/mL and CHX was 40 μg/mL. Conclusion and inference: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that all the herbal extracts tested in this study demonstrated antibacterial activity against mutans streptococci (MS) and Lactobacillus. Chlorhexidine shows maximum antibacterial action against S. mutans and Lactobacillus followed by the mushroom extract and then aloe vera extracts with the zones of inhibition of (20.3 mm/24.13), (17.03/16.05), and (14.09/14.26), respectively. Herbal products have potent antimicrobial activity that can be looked at as an alternative to CHX. However, further in vitro and long-term in vivo studies are recommended to confirm and correlate the findings of this study to a clinical situation.
Aim: The main aim of the study is to analyze the adequacy of platelet-rich fibrin and lateral position pedicle flap method over laterally sliding flap technique to cure gingival recession. Background: Nowadays, second-generation platelet concentrate having autologous platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) gel along with growth factors that have cicatricle properties is being used for exposed root in dentistry. This technique is a recent invention to treat exposed roots with adequacy on various existing methods. Dentists have found numerous clinical challenges in treatment of gingival recession by laterally sliding flap technique that is being used commonly to cover isolated, denuded roots at vestibular depth. Laterally sliding flap technique has been modified due to undesirable results on the donor teeth. Due to limitations of the abovementioned methods, growth factors are found suitable in combination with surgical methods. Case description: After using platelet-rich fibrin and lateral position pedicle flap method along with autologous suspension of growth factor over laterally sliding flap technique, the patients were found stable with about 80–85% root coverage as well as satisfactory healing in gingival tissues in both donor and recipient site with no inflammation. Conclusion: This technique has very satisfactory outcome as the patients were satisfied with case resolution. Clinical significance: Second-generation platelet concentrate having autologous PRF have the properties to promote tissue repair and regeneration. This method does not have second surgical site because the donor tissue is taken from the same surgical site.
Almost every country in the world is struggling with the recent crisis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Droplets and contact are considered as main transmission routes in human-to-human transfer of coronavirus infection. Physical distancing and meticulous hand hygiene are key measures recommended to prevent the infection. Lately, wearing of face mask by general public is also added in the measures to curb the spread of COVID-19. However, different types of masks have created confusion among general public to choose proper face mask. Moreover, shortage of surgical masks and respirators (N95/equivalent or higher version) due to sudden rise in demand has driven health authorities to bring about alternate policies to compensate insufficient supply. This article reviews availability of various types of masks, their usage, and role in prevention of respiratory viral infection, especially coronavirus. In addition, recommended guidelines of extended use and reuse of mask during short supply, especially in recent pandemic, have also been reviewed.
Objective: To perform a systematic review of test methodologies of high-strength restorative glass ionomer cement (GIC) materials for compressive (CS) and flexural strengths (FS) to compare the results between different GICs. Materials and methods: Screening of titles and abstracts, data extraction, and quality assessment was conducted in search for in vitro studies, which reported on CS and/or FS properties of high-strength GIC. PubMed/Medline (US National Library of Medicine—National Institutes of Health), EBSCO, and ProQuest databases were searched for the relevant literature. Results: A total of 123 studies were found. These were then assessed based on preestablished inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of the selected studies, two studies of fair quality tested CS, while none tested FS. The CS of experimental groups in both studies was less than their respective control groups. Discussion: It was observed that many studies reported following the International Standards Organization (ISO) recommendations for testing but with modifications. Additionally, in absence of guidelines for testing other parameters that may be potentially advantageous, authors have used differing experimental techniques. These disparities make it difficult to draw comparisons between different studies. Conclusion: Only two studies of fair quality showed lower CS of experimental groups compared to their respective control groups. Lack of adherence to guidelines and lack of guidelines for potentially better test methodologies make it difficult to scrutinize and compare the validity of the research being conducted.